What is Block Chain ?

A blockchain is a digital record of transactions. The name comes from its structure, in which individual records, called blocks, are linked together in single list, called a chain. Blockchains are used for recording transactions made with cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin, and have many other applications.

Each transaction added to a blockchain is validated by multiple computers on the Internet. These systems, which are configured to monitor specific types of blockchain transactions, form a peer-to-peer network. They work together to ensure each transaction is valid before it is added to the blockchain. This decentralized network of computers ensures a single system cannot add invalid blocks to the chain.

When a new block is added to a blockchain, it is linked to the previous block using a cryptographic hash generated from the contents of the previous block. This ensures the chain is never broken and that each block is permanently recorded. It is also intentionally difficult to alter past transactions in blockchain since all the subsequent blocks must be altered first.

Blockchain Uses

While blockchain is widely known for its use in cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin, Litecoin, and Ether, the technology has several other uses. For example, it enables “smart contracts,” which execute when certain conditions are met. This provides an automated escrow system for transactions between two parties. Blockchain can potentially be used to allow individuals to pay each other without a central clearing point, which is required for ACH and wire transfers. It has potential to greatly increase the efficiency of stock trading by allowing transactions to settle almost instantly instead of requiring three or more days for each transaction to clear.

Blockchain technology can also be used for non-financial purposes. For example, the InterPlanetary File System (IFPS) uses blockchain to decentralize file storage by linking files together over the Internet. Some digital signature platforms now use blockchain to record signatures and verify documents have been digitally signed. Blockchain can even be used to protect intellectual property by linking the distribution of content to the original source.

Block Chain in single sentence :

“It’s a brand-new way of transmitting money without the need for traditional banking networks, as well as a means to store data in a transparent and unalterable way.”

I explain the above simple sentence as below :

“It’s a brand-new way of transmitting money”

Blockchain was developed in response to perceived flaws with the current banking system. Among them is the fact that payments sent from one party to another can take up to five business days to be validated and settle, especially if they’re being sent across borders. That’s simply not acceptable to some folks, and it’s a clear deterrent to businesses operating at optimal efficiency.

Blockchain resolves this by processing transactions more efficiently. We’re talking about transactions being validated and settled almost instantly, or within a matter of minutes, as opposed to waiting days at a time.

As you might imagine, there are still steps that need to be taken on a blockchain network to ensure that transactions are valid. In other words, there are checks in place to make sure the same virtual token isn’t being spent twice.

For mineable cryptocurrencies, such as bitcoin and Ethereum, cryptocurrency miners — people with high-powered computers and servers — compete against one another to solve complex mathematical equations, which are part of the encryption process to protect data, to validate transactions. Each time a group of transactions, known as a block, is resolved and proven true, it’s added to the previously validated transactions, forming a chain of validated transactions. Thus the coined term “blockchain.”

It’s worth pointing out that not all blockchains are validated by mining. Others, such as NEO, use a method known as “proof-of-stake.” The idea is the same in that an individual is ensuring the validity of transactions on a blockchain network. The difference is that there’s no competition or high-powered computers involved. Instead, people are chosen randomly to validate blocks of transactions. That “randomness” is based on ownership in a blockchain network’s underlying cryptocurrency. In other words, the more of a non-mineable cryptocurrency you own, the more likely you are to be chosen at random to validate transactions.

“Without the need for traditional banking networks”

Blockchain also has the purpose of simplifying transactions.

The way a remittance works today is that one person or business sends money to another person or business through a traditional bank network. The bank, despite doing virtually nothing other than supplying the infrastructure to allow this transfer to take place, usually gets to pilfer fees in the process. Blockchain developers didn’t like this, which is another reason blockchain was created.

With blockchain networks, transactions are simplified. There’s a sender of funds and a receiver of funds. That’s it. No third-party financial institution involvement whatsoever. Since these transactions are processed on the blockchain network and not through traditional bank networks, the general belief is that it should help to reduce transaction fees.

It should be clearly stated that reduced transaction fees aren’t necessarily a win for the consumer. These behind-the-scenes costs might just wind up padding the margins of businesses if they drop, but it’s really too early to tell.

“As well as a means to store data”

This pivot is important, as it signifies that blockchain technology is about more than just offering a new way to send money. Blockchain has what seems to be an ever-growing list of non-currency applications. In effect, it provides a new and exciting way to log data.

While we’ve witnessed a big push in the healthcare sector to move away from paper and toward digital forms, that’s not necessarily the case in other sectors and industries. Blockchain would aid that push, which could result in a major uptick in operating efficiency. Let me offer an example.

Among the non-currency applications that are most exciting is what blockchain might be able to do for supply chains. Though some aspects of the supply chain have gone digital, paper still plays a critical role in getting products and supplies from one part of the chain to the next. The problem with paper is that it’s not very efficient, and it can slow down the process by which a good moves from its starting point to the retailer or customer.

With blockchain, everything can be logged digitally. This could allow for manufacturers, retailers, wholesalers, and perhaps even consumers (depending on the industry), to see where a product is in real time. It also allows businesses to spot inefficiencies much faster than with paper logs, which can lead to quick fixes.

“In a transparent and unalterable way”

Building on the previous point, blockchain bests paper in one other major way: It’s considerably more legally binding. Paper can be easily altered. By contrast, data on a blockchain network is considered to be immutable. That’s a fancy way of saying that it’s unchanging and cannot be altered.

When a person or business looks at data on a blockchain network, they know it to be true. And, since blockchain data is often transparent (unless it’s a private network operated by a business), it makes attempting to alter data virtually impossible, since others on the network would be able to view any changes made. This transparency and immutability is what makes blockchain particularly secure with regard to storing and logging data.

Sure, there are other nuances to blockchain, and I would certainly encourage you to read about them. But when you get down to the nitty-gritty, we’re talking about a new way to send money without banks, as well as store data in a transparent and immutable way.


Electronic textiles, also known as smart garmentssmart clothingsmart textiles, or smart fabrics, are fabrics that enable digital components such as a battery and a light (including small computers), and electronics to be embedded in them. Smart textiles are fabrics that have been developed with new technologies that provide added value to the wearer. Pailes-Friedman of the Pratt Institute states that “what makes smart fabrics revolutionary is that they have the ability to do many things that traditional fabrics cannot, including communicate, transform, conduct energy and even grow”.

Smart textiles can be broken into two different categories: aesthetic and performance enhancing. Aesthetic examples include fabrics that light up and fabrics that can change colour. Some of these fabrics gather energy from the environment by harnessing vibrations, sound or heat, reacting to these inputs. The colour changing and lighting scheme can also work by embedding the fabric with electronics that can power it. Performance enhancing smart textiles are intended for use in athletic, extreme sports and military applications. These include fabrics designed to regulate body temperature, reduce wind resistance, and control muscle vibration – all of which may improve athletic performance. Other fabrics have been developed for protective clothing, to guard against extreme environmental hazards, such as radiation and the effects of space travel. The health and beauty industry is also taking advantage of these innovations, which range from drug-releasing medical textiles, to fabric with moisturizer, perfume, and anti-aging properties. Many smart clothing, wearable technology, and wearable computing projects involve the use of e-textiles.

Electronic textiles are distinct from wearable computing because emphasis is placed on the seamless integration of textiles with electronic elements like micro controllers, sensors, and actuators. Furthermore, e-textiles need not be wearable. For instance, e-textiles are also found in interior design.

The  field of fibretronics explores how electronic and computational functionality can be integrated into textile fibers. The  three distinct generations of textile wearable technologies are

  1. “First generation” attach a sensor to apparel. This approach is currently taken by sportswear brands such as Adidas, Nike and Under Armour
  2. “Second generation” products embed the sensor in the garment, as demonstrated by current products from Samsung, Alphabet, Ralph Lauren and Flex.
  3. In “third generation” wearable, the garment is the sensor. A growing number of companies are creating pressure, strain and temperature sensors for this purpose

Sensoria’s fitness T-shirt, Sensoria’s smart socks

Recent advances, such as embroidering circuits into fabric or transparent sensor material that can be printed on to textiles, are helping to create a range of technologies that bring together the clothing, technology and textile industries to create fabrics with capabilities for users as varied as athletes, patients, soldiers and ordinary consumers. In practical terms, companies like Globe in the US are developing smart fabrics to measure the extreme physiological stress that can be experienced during the course of an individual’s duties – for example, a firefighter or a soldier.Using smart fabrics technology, the company has developed a Wearable Advanced Sensor Platform (WASP) that is being deployed to track a firefighter’sheart rate, core body temperature, respiration rate, activity levels, posture and other factors, as well as provide tracking and improve overall situational awareness.The potential of smart fabrics is huge and recent research suggests the market, including fabrics manufactured with smart materials and those that use embedded sensors, could be worth more than $1.8billion by 2021, driven by the IoT, developments in smart materials and in smaller, more powerful sensors.Research has seen significant developments in electrically conductive yarns and threads, conductive polymers, shape memory materials, phase-changing materials, self-cleaning and antimicrobial materials, as well as nanomaterials. As a result, more applications are moving beyond the laboratory, with end-user applications for the medical, health and fitness, military and security, fashion and non-clothing applications beginning to appear.

Medical is expected to be the largest market for smart textiles and could be worth $1billion by 2021. Using smart clothing, patients with chronic diseases, such as diabetes and heart problems, could be monitored continuously, with updates being regularly sent to their physicians.  “In the health sector,


MSME Transformation camp @ Coimbatore

New Delhi, Oct 15 (KNN) To bolster the operational efficiency of the SMEs, Power2SME and Coimbatore District Small Industries Association (CODISSIA) during SME Transformation Camp apprised MSMEs about the importance of technology to help them overcome any hindrance in operations as regards access to working capital and procurement of raw materials.

The SME Transformation camp was organized by Power2SME the first ‘buying club’ for SMEs in India in association with the Coimbatore District Small Industries Association (CODISSIA) in Coimbatore with an aim to strengthen operations and increase the productivity and efficiency through adoption of technology and adapting to new methods of production

Through the collaboration, Power2SME and Coimbatore District Small Industries Association (CODISSIA) would work towards educating SMEs to help them address issues which could affect their operations including the sourcing and timely procurement of raw materials and need for financial inclusion of SMEs, among others.

Being a house to over 2.18 lakh MSME units, Tamil Nadu is a state bustling with opportunities, said R Narayan, Founder & CEO, Power2SME.

He said that SME Transformation Camps can greatly help MSMEs in the region enhance operations and profitability through creating an enabling environment for their growth and development.

“We intend to make the SMEs capable of augmenting their overall performance through adopting the solutions that would be extended through the sessions conducted under the initiative,” he added.

During the event, CODISSIA, President, R. Ramamurthy said “With support of multiple government policies and schemes, Coimbatore offers a plethora of opportunities for business development and entrepreneurship.”

He said that MSMEs in the region have benefitted hugely with programs like the SME Transformation Camps organised and in future would definitely implement the knowledge they have gained and augment the business further.

The event saw D Balachandran, Assistant General Manager, SIDBI and Sathesh Kumar, Deputy Director, MSME Development Institute, Coimbatore along with senior management from Power2SME, addressing over 65 SMEs.

#ssatheshkumar #msme #Governmentofindia

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Emerging Technology Trends in Agricultural Engineering

Agriculture Robot :

An agricultural robot is a robot deployed for agricultural purposes. The main area of application of robots in agriculture today is at the harvesting stage. Emerging applications of robots or drones in agriculture include weed controlcloud seeding ,planting seeds, harvesting, environmental monitoring and soil analysis

agricultural forming

Precision agriculture :

Precision agriculture (PA), satellite farming or site specific crop management (SSCM) is a farming management concept based on observing, measuring and responding to inter and intra-field variability in crops. The goal of precision agriculture research is to define a decision support system(DSS) for whole farm management with the goal of optimizing returns on inputs while preserving resources.

Among these many approaches is a phytogeomorphological approach which ties multi-year crop growth stability/characteristics to topological terrain attributes. The interest in the phytogeomorphological approach stems from the fact that the geomorphology component typically dictates the hydrology of the farm field.

The practice of precision agriculture has been enabled by the advent of GPS and GNSS. The farmer’s and/or researcher’s ability to locate their precise position in a field allows for the creation of maps of the spatial variability of as many variables as can be measured (e.g. crop yield, terrain features/topography, organic matter content, moisture levels, nitrogen levels, pH, EC, Mg, K, and others). Similar data is collected by sensor arrays mounted on GPS-equipped combine harvesters. These arrays consist of real-time sensors that measure everything from chlorophyll levels to plant water status, along with multispectral imagery. This data is used in conjunction with satellite imagery by variable rate technology (VRT) including seeders, sprayers, etc. to optimally distribute resources.

Precision agriculture has also been enabled by unmanned aerial vehicles like the DJI Phantom which are relatively inexpensive and can be operated by novice pilots. These agricultural drones can be equipped with hyperspectral or RGB cameras to capture many images of a field that can be processed using photogrammetric methods to create orthophotos and NDVI maps


Vertical farming :

Vertical farming is the practice of producing food and medicine in vertically stacked layers, vertically inclined surfaces and/or integrated in other structures (such as in a skyscraper, used warehouse, or shipping container). The modern ideas of vertical farming use indoor farming techniques and controlled-environment agriculture (CEA) technology, where all environmental factors can be controlled. These facilities utilize artificial control of light, environmental control (humidity, temperature, gases…) and fertigation. Some vertical farms use techniques similar to greenhouses, where natural sunlight can be augmented with artificial lighting and metal reflectors

Hydroponic systems can be lit by LEDs that mimic sunlight. Software can ensure that all the plants get the same amount of light, water and nutrients. Proper managements means that no herbicides or pesticides are required.


 #ssatheshkumar #agriculturetrends #organicfood

38th India International Trade Fair @ New Delhi


Office of Development Commissioner (MSME) is participating in 38th IITF,
2018 from 14-27 November, 2018 at ITPO, Pragati Maidan, New Delhi. The MSME
pavilion will be in Hall No. 7E. Registration form, terms & conditions, undertaking are
enclosed for mobilisation of participants. Please note that space rent charges are
subsidised and travelling expenses , freight charges etc. will not be admissible for
the participation in IITF, 2018.

Nilgris Woolen Cluster (p) Ltd- SPV Meet

Government of India has given principal approval to Nilgris woolen cluster (p) ltd. The cluuster has nearly 125 members. Director KRK Prasad, MSME-DI, Chennai visited the Common facility centre (CFC) on 06-01-2018 and conducted meeting with SPV members. Shri S.Sathesh kumar Dy.Director In-Charge Br.MSME Coimbatore explained the cluster background to Director. The project cost of the Nilgris woolen cluster (p) ltd is Rs.9 crores.

MSME Stake Holders Meet @ Coimbatore

MSME-DI(Br.), Coimbatore organised MSME-Stake holders meet at coimbatore on 05/10/2018 at CODISSIA Board Hall, Coimbatore. Stake holders from Five district attended the meeting. The purpose of the meeting was

MSMEs in India are  facing a number of problems like sub optimal scale of operation, technological obsolescence, supply chain inefficiencies, increasing domestic and global competition, fund shortages, change in manufacturing strategies and turbulent and uncertain market scenario. To survive through such issues and compete with large and global enterprises, MSMEs need to adopt innovative approaches in their working. Innovation could be on multiple parameters like business processes, product/ service development, technology, handling external environment to compete with large enterprises globally.              

Towards this objective, there is an ardent need to provide a common platform for innovators and industry to come together and fill the demand and supply gap by mutual interaction and also provide requisite policy inputs to the government for informed decision making.

 Problem statements in technological areas :

1.Technology transfer

  1. Modernization
  2. Certification Compliance
  3. Raw material
  4. Public procurement
  5. Marketing and Export Growth
  6. Credit Flow
  7. Quality
  8. Cluster
  9. Skilled Labour Force

                        MSME STAKE-HOLDERS MEET ON 05.10.2018 AT COIMBATORE



10.00 hrs Welcome Address
10.15 hrs Branch MSME-DI Activities Presentation
10.45 hrs Panel Discussion – 1
Chairman / Member 1.    Director, MSME Development Institute, Chennai.
Panel Discussion Topic 2.    Branch National Small Industries Corporation, Coimbatore

Central and state Government Schemes

3.    Khadhi & Village Industries Corporation, Coimbatore
4.    COIR Board, Pollachi
5.    District Industries Centre, Coimbatore / Tiruppur / Erode / Salem.
6.    Tamilnadu Industrial Investment Corporation Limited, Coimbatore
7.    Tamil Nadu Small Industries Development Corporation Limited, Coimbatore.
11.15 hrs 8.    TEA Break
11.30 hrs Panel Discussion – II
Chairman / Member 1.    President, CODISSIA, Coimbatore
Panel Discussion Topic 2.    The Southern India Engineering Manufacturers’ Association (SIEMA), Coimbatore
1.Technology transfer

2. Modernization

3. Credit Flow

4. Raw material

5. Public procurement


3.    Coimbatore SIDCO Industrial Estate Manufacturers Welfare Association (COSIEMA), Coimbatore
4.    Coimbatore Industrial Infrastructure Association (COINDIA), Coimbatore
5.    Coimbatore & Tiruppur District Micro & Cottage Entrepreneurs Association (COTMA), Coimbatore.
6.    Coimbatore Wet Grinders and Accessories Mfrs., Association (COWMA), Coimbatore.
7.    TACT, Coimbatore
8.    Dalit Indian Chamber of Commerce & Industry, Coimbatore
12.00 hrs Panel Discussion – III
Chairman / Member 1.    President, SADISSIA, Salem
Panel Discussion Topic 2.    Tiruppur Thozhil Pathugappu Kuzhu, Tiruppur
6. Marketing and Export Growth

7. Certificate Compliance

8. Quality

9. Cluster

10.  Skilled Labour Force


3.    Erode District Small Scale Industries Association, Erode
4.    National Institute of Fashion Technology – Tiruppur Exporters’ Association (NIFT-TEA), Tirupur
12.30 hrs Vote of Thanks


What are Industrial Clusters?

Clusters are groups of inter-related industries that drive wealth creation in a region, primarily through export of goods and services. The use of clusters as a descriptive tool for regional economic relationships provides a richer, more meaningful representation of local industry drivers and regional dynamics than do traditional methods. An industry cluster is different from the classic definition of industry sectors because it represents the entire value chain of a broadly defined industry from suppliers to end products, including supporting services and specialized infrastructure. Cluster industries are geographically concentrated and inter-connected by the flow of goods and services, which is stronger than the flow linking them to the rest of the economy. Clusters include both high and low-value added employment.

Modern Export-driven economy Cluster :



A well developed concentration of related business spurs three important activities: increased productivity (through specialized inputs, access to information, synergies, and access to public goods), more rapid innovation (through cooperative research and competitive striving), and new business formation (filling in niches and expanding the boundaries of the cluster map).

Clusters are always changing. They respond to the constant shifting of the marketplace. They usually begin through entrepreneurship. Silicon Valley is a relatively new cluster of computer-related industries; in the past, Detroit was the same for automobiles. Nothing sparks productive innovation better than having your competitor across the street.

Clustering helps cities and counties direct their economic development and recruiting efforts. It also encourages communities to refocus efforts on existing industries. Communities understand that the best way to expand their own economies and those of the surrounding region is to support a cluster of firms rather than to try to attract companies one at a time to an area. Chambers of Commerce, business incubators, and some universities work with companies to develop clusters and synergies in business communities.

Cluster Examples ;

1. Sivakasi match sticks and fire crackers

2. Kanchipuram Silks

3. Tirupur Knitting

4. Madurai jasmine

5. Marthandam Honey

6. Thovalai Flower

7.Erode loom

Many more like this.